Chogha Zanbil also spelled Tchogha Zanbil, or Choga Zambil is the best-preserved sample of the ziggurat in the world and an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province. Untash-Napirishia the king of Elamite Built it in 1259 BC, as an earthly house of the great god Inshushinak, the bull-god of Susa, and a place for worship. This complex consists of a magnificent ziggurat, temples, and three palaces. The original name of Chogha Zanbil is Dur Untash, which means ‘town of Untash’.
More About Chogha Zanbil
It is protected by three concentric walls which define the main areas of the ‘town’. In the center of the third rampart, the main temple (Ziggurat) is placed. This square shaped structure is constructed along four main directions. This temple was constructed in five floors by sun-dried bricks covered with a layer of baked bricks. The fifth floor was used to be the place of the most famous deity of Shoosh city.i.e.In shushing. At present only two floors have remained. The water purification system of Choqa Zanbil has been accounted as one of the most ancient water supply systems. The rainwater was collected in underground pipes and directed to the outside of the outer wall; the pipes are made of clay covered with natural tar for insulation. Currently, there is 35 Ziggurat in the world; 28 of them are in Iraq and 5 in Iran. The Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, Iraq; the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Iraq; Chogha Zanbil in Khuzestan, Iran; and Sialk near Kashan, Iran are notable ones. Some people believe the oldest Ziggurat is in Iraq whereas others opine the ziggurat in Sialk (kashan) is the oldest one.
Choqa Zanbil is located in about 30 km of Susa and the first Iranian site that has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979. The Sialk ziggurat, in Kashan, Isfahan province, and the Konar (kenar) Sandal Ziggurat of the Jiroft, Kerman province, is two other ziggurats in Iran.